.↑ Right from the incipit, a tantalising narrator, using the “you” pronoun to speak to us, 21st century readers, reminds us that we are from different time and space than the characters of the novel: “Watch your steps. Keep your wits about you; you will need them. This city I am bringing you to [London] is vast and intricate, and you have not been here before. You may imagine, from other stories you’ve read, that you know it well, but those stories flattered you, welcoming you as a friend, treating you as if youa belonged. The truth is that you are an alien from another time and place altogether” (Faber, 2002, 3).
.↑ The article published by Heather Pringle, “How Europeans brought sickness to the new world” (Science, 2015). https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/06/how-europeans-brought- sickness-new-world Last retrieved on February 28th, 2020.
.↑ « Partout où il y a de l’expérience, il y a de la trace, et il n’y a pas d’expérience sans trace. […] Il y a du sillage, de la rétention, de la protention et donc du rapport à de l’autre, à l’autre, ou à un autre moment, un autre lieu, du renvoi à l’autre, il y a de la trace » (Derrida, 2014, 59).
.↑ Definition of the Merriam-Webster dictionary. https://www.merriam-webster.com/ dictionary/scar February 28, 2020.
.↑ One may recall that the etymology of “trace”, a “track made by the passage of a person or thing”, comes from old French (12th century) in which it meant “mark, imprint, tracks” https:// www.etymonline.com/word/trace February 28, 2020.
.↑ Jane Caplan recalls that “tattooing alone has had an extended, if discontinuous history in Western culture. At the same time, it has occupied an uneasy and ambiguous status within a dominant culture in which body-marking was usually treated as punitive and stigmatic rather than honourable or decorative” (Caplan, 2000, xi).
.↑ https://www.etymonline.com/word/tattoo February 28, 2020.
.↑ Vergès F., (2017), Le Ventre des femmes : Capitalisme, racialisation, féminisme, Paris, A. Michel.
.↑ The narrative voice later evokes the “tiger textures on her skin like diagrams for his [William’s] own fingers” (Faber, 2002, 309), reinforcing the notion of compatibility or correlation between capitalist England and prostitution/consumerism.
.↑ This reminds us of the question the political theorist Jane Bennett asks in Vibrant Matter: “How would political responses to public problems change were we to take seriously the vitality of (nonhuman) bodies? By “vitality’ I mean the capacity of things […] to act as quasi agents or forces with trajectories, propensities, or tendencies of their own” (Bennett, 2010, viii).
.↑ The way some criminals – sexual predators or terrorists – are referred to as “beasts” or “monsters” shows how vivid the metaphor still is in the 21st century.
.↑ In his article “Body Commodification? Class and Tattoos in Victorian Britain”, James Bradley highlights that “by the end of the nineteenth century tattoos had increasingly become associated with criminals” (Bradley, 2000, 137). Sugar’s tiger stripes thus doubly mark her as a criminal: she is tattooed and she shares a link with animality.
.↑ Earlier in the novel, her friend Caroline wonders if it is Sugar’s “animal serenity” (Faber, 2002, 29) that men find so attractive about her. Her animality, though imagined from a different perspective, is again what makes Sugar different from other prostitutes.
.↑ Tigers used to be associated in Ancient China with yin and with sexual power: “This sexual connotation [of the tiger] goes back to early Asian beliefs. […] It was adopted by the British during colonial times and gave the tiger’s pelt an air of lasciviousness and sensuality” (Buchinger, 2009, 22).
.↑ The tiger hunt was a fashionable sport in British India: “the practice of shooting tigers became a rite of passage that led to the almost obligatory inclusion of the description of tiger kills in the memoirs of many Englishmen in India” (Buchinger, 2009, 19-20).
.↑ Later in the novel, the ichthyosis patterns are said to “radiate […] like scars from a thousand flagellations, but in perfect symmetry, as though inflicted by a deranged aesthete” (Faber, 2002, 198; emphasis mine).
.↑ The term is used in the context of Ranajit Guha’s “Subaltern Studies”. It refers to those who have been subjected to colonialism and who still face the epistemic violence of Western thought frames. These studies aim at suggesting the possibility of having alternative historical narratives written “from below” and for the subaltern subjects, the possibility of being empowered.
.↑ Tattooing at the end of the 19th century was not only associated with criminals or sailors. As Bradley shows, “at some time around the late 1880s fashionable society was gripped by a tattoo craze” (Bradley, 2000, 145-146) with several texts stating that wealthy Londoners had their bodies tattooed. This explains why Cora Seaborne feels proud that some people should consider the trace of her husband’s assaulting her as a recently acquired tattoo.
.↑ “In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split into active/male and passive/female… In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneousy looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to‑be‑looked‑at‑ness” (Mulvey, 1975, 47-48).
.↑ William also “imagines himself as a restless beast […] His lust suggests ever more vivid fantasies of sexual conquest and revenge. By turns, he rapes the world into submission, and cowers under its boot in piteous despair – each time more ferocious, each time more fawning” (Faber, 2002, 67). The lexical field of bestiality (“ferocious”) is associated with that of violence made to women (“sexual conquest”, “rapes”) and of slyness as well. The use of omniscient narration gives interesting information about William’s persona which readers would not have access to, were William the sole focal point.
.↑ Had William been more able to read the marks, he could have recognised the tiger as “a metaphor of insurrection in the British mythology of power” (Miller, 2012, 40) and possibly anticipated Sugar’s behaviour at the end of the novel. It is also possible to interpret the fact that Sugar’s marks are associated with the (Indian) tiger by William Rackham as a sign pointing to what he will later consider as her slyness (as opposed to the British lion, to which he may identify more). Similarly, in Kipling’s Jungle Books, even if the tiger is called Shere Khan – with the latter word being suggestive of domination, the tiger is not that respected by other animals, possibly because of its crippled appearance. Shere Khan was born with a lame hind leg which got him the nickname of “Lungri”, the lame one.
.↑ Still, even the doctor’s knowledge is questioned when the narrator adds: “He might prescribe expensive ointments which would have no more effect on the cracks in Sugar’s hands or the flaky stripes on her thighs than the cheap oil she’s already using” (Faber, 2002, 173).
.↑ Later in the novel, Sugar is shown to be scratching at her forearms “until her skin is the texture of grated ginger-root” (Faber, 2002, 284). The reference to ginger here again connects Sugar with exoticism.
.↑ “Tigers were often contrasted favorably to panthers: “‘The tiger is, as a rule, a gentleman. The panther, on the other hand, is a bounder,’ Glasfurd asserted […] Many authors alluded to the tiger’s ‘nobility’” (Schell, 2007, 242)
.↑ At the end of the novel, Sugar escapes with Sophie, William’s daughter, but in the process, all the pages she had written for her novel end up flying in the air, spreading her words in the posh area of London where William is living. Even if this could be interpreted as her message of female empowerment spreading beyond the scope of her potential novel, the fact she does not ultimately become a writer qualifies the extent of her final emancipation.
.↑ Sugar’s marked hands are once referred to as “leathery palms” (Faber, 2002, 36).
.↑ https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2015/08/28/how-paper-cranes-became-a-symbole-of- healing-in-japan/ Last retrieved on February 28th, 2020.